I have a set of data - quarterly figures of a company's financial statements - and I would like to see whether the figures are cyclical e.g. 4th quarter always the highest. Which statistical test should I apply and whether such a function is available in Excel?
I believe that you may be confusing cyclicity with seasonality. Seasonality is a repeating event such as you describe. It can happen at an hourly, daily, weekly, monthly quarterly, etc. level. Cyclicity is by nature unpredictable except for a very short forecast (i.e., less than 3 months). There are ups and downs but the duration and frequency change.
Seasonality may be analyzed using decomposition or by cross-correlation of the time series with itself. If you are using ARIMA, seasonal patterns will often show up in the ACF and PACF as a suspension bridge pattern, the length of which is the seasonal period.
Regarding Excel, the only possibility that might work is the Fourier Analysis and picking the seasonal period from the Periodogram. Theoretically, it should work and I have found some articles using a search engine. I have used Fourier Analysis on sound and vibration, but never on a time series.