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    Confounder or Effect modifier based of Odds ratio

    Hi, So we have been given odds ratio for males and females in four different scenarios to find out if sex is a confounder or effect modifier in a study looking at the association between lung cancer and smoking. The Ratios are something like this OR(Male) OR(Female) Crude OR Adjusted...
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    Parametric testing hypothesis

    Hi again, So I had another homework question and have to come up with a null and alternative hypothesis for the research question given: The question is: are smokers at risk of getting lung cancer than those who don't smoke. I came up with this: Null hypothesis: Those who smoke = lung cancer...
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    Sign Test

    Hi everyone, I was stuck on this homework question and it’s on sign test. Question: Ten students selected randomly were questioned whether they consumed more or less alcohol after passing out of college. Their answers were: more, less, more, less, less, less, less, more, less and less. I...