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    Full numbers in Boxplot

    Hi all, I have a problem: I only want to have the full numbers between 1 and 4 in my X axis. However, R always outputs the half steps. What do I have to do to make them disappear? Many thanks, Tom # ~ Illustrating causal estimates for causal models ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ add_estimate2 <-...
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    Axis labeling Boxplot

    Hello dears, I would like to change the labelling of the axis in the following example. Instead of 0,1,2,3,4,5 I would like to have the corresponding model names "crude", "direct", "total", "bias1"... there. How do I do that? Can anyone help me? I would also like a legend for the red line...
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    HLM Simulation

    Hello dear people, I have a question and hope you can help me. I am new in R and would like to simulate some data to practice. I would like to design a HLM, but I am overwhelmed at the moment. I would like to simulate the following scenario: Suppose I want to measure the development of...
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    Controlling for colliders

    Hello dears, I have a problem of understanding. Why shouldn't I control for colliders in DAG's, both statically and in design? The whole thing is not clear to me. Can someone explain it in simple terms? Thanks for your help, Tom