The objective is to see if there is a difference by gender between these groups and find the group which is significantly different from others. I have sent you the table. Can you please run and show me the output and residuals to identify the significant one? Thanks for your help.
It might be more simple than the very accurate and complete article by Donald Sharpe quoted in the previous post.
As you have a cell with 5 individuals which is the known limit to use the chi-square test, you might want to use the Monte Carlo or Fisher exact tests. I let you run the tests, but the Fisher exact test gives a higher p-value.
Thanks. This is a real life project. The paper helped me to understand the concept and various tests involved. But not answering my question directly that is which group is significantly different from others? Practical help is appreciated.
The adjusted residuals suggest that there are more females in the age group 15-44 (AR 2.6) and more male in the group 45+ (AR 2.0 its positive not negative as I have written in my previous reply). And the difference is significant at p is .013 and likelihood ratio is .012 (i made mistake with a decimal point). The Pearson Chi-square and Likelihood Ratio is applied to indicate significance for the entire table or between groups?
The p value is > 0.05. According to the common decision rule, this is considerd as not statistical significant,
meaning that one cannot reject the null hypothesis: "the distribution of sexes is the same in each age group"
(or "the distribution of age groups is the same for each sex", respectively). Therefore, post-hoc analyses
would usually not be performed.
By the way, it is unclear (at least for me) what you want to find out. Your analysis concerns whether the
distribution of sexes is the same over 3 age groups, irrespective of whether there are more men than women
(or vice versa). Your questions, though, seem to suggest that you want to know in which age groups there
are significantly more men than women (or more women than men). But maybe this is a misunderstanding
from my side.
You are correct I am trying to find out which group is significant. I am mistaken with p value while writing. It is .013. That is significant. Now looking at the residuals I find 2 groups with adjusted residuals 2 or more. So these are significantly different from other groups? Do I need to do post hoc analysis? If so how do I do it? Thank you. Siddiqi
Unfortunately, I still do not understand what you want to achieve.
"I am trying to find out which group is significant." is not a research
question. Do you want to find out in which age groups
there are significantly more men than women (or more women than men),
i.e. significant deviations from 50%/50%?
Or do you want to find out in which age group men are underrepresented
(or over-represented), i.e. in which certain age groups the proportion
of men is larger than overall?