However, if I want to compare the value of a single gene to the rest I'm not quite sure what the best way to do that is. I could just ask if the single value is significantly different than the mean of the other set, but I would like to incorporate the estimated standard error of the single value to make the test more conservative. Can I use this standard error (with N=1) in conjunction with the weighted standard error of the set to calculate the Welch's t statistic and degrees of freedom estimate? N=1 here seems wrong to me because this N should refer to the sampling used to derive the standard error estimate. This standard error is calculated by the curvature method from an optimization algorithm so there isn't really an N associated with it. Would it be fair (conservative) to just use N=1 here to calculate the t statistic and degrees of freedom?